segunda-feira, 16 de janeiro de 2017

Gostam de ouvir o nome do outro

Foto: Rādhe-Śyāma por Vṛndāvana Dāsa

Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, 
Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare
Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, 
Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare

हरे कृष्ण हरे कृष्ण कृष्ण कृष्ण हरे हरे हरे राम हरे राम राम राम हरे हरे

Porque o Sādhaka Vaiṣṇava Gauḍīyā canta constantemente Hare Kṛṣṇa?

Porque uma Mañjarī sabe que Rādhā gosta muito de ouvir o nome de Kṛṣṇa, mesmo quando está com Ele e principalmente quando está separada d'Ele. 

E que Kṛṣṇa gosta muito de ouvir o nome de Rādhā, mesmo quando está com Ela e principalmente quando está separado d'Ela. 

Photo: Rādhe-Śyāma by Vṛndāvana Dāsa

Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, 
Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare 
Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, 
Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare

हरे कृष्ण हरे कृष्ण कृष्ण कृष्ण हरे हरे हरे राम हरे राम राम राम हरे हरे

Why does the Gauḍīyā Vaiṣṇava Sādhaka constantly chant Hare Kṛṣṇa?

Because a Mañjarī knows that Rādhā likes very much to hear the name of Kṛṣṇa, even when She is with Him and especially when She is separated from Him.

And that Kṛṣṇa likes very much to hear the name of Rādhā, even when He is with Her and especially when He is separated from Her.

domingo, 15 de janeiro de 2017

Vipralambha-māyī Yugala Mantra

Foto: Rūpa Mañjarī em sua maravilhosa vestimenta em forma de penas de pavão a unir Śrī Śrī Rādhā Rādhā-Rasika (por Vṛndāvana Dāsa)

Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, 
Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare 
Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, 
Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare

हरे कृष्ण हरे कृष्ण कृष्ण कृष्ण हरे हरे  हरे राम हरे राम राम राम हरे हरे

Porque o Sādhaka Vaiṣṇava Gauḍīyā  canta constantemente Hare Kṛṣṇa?

Porque uma Mañjarī desempenha um papel fundamental na performance de união e separação do Casal Divino e seu único objectivo é unir Rādhā e Kṛṣṇa. 

Nos passatempos diários eternos, Rādhā e Kṛṣṇa separam-se por alguns momentos do dia, mas esta separação simplesmente serve para aumentar o prazer da re-união.

O Mahā-mantra Hare Kṛṣṇa é um Vipralambha-māyī Yugala Mantra (um Mantra do Casal Divino permeado com a dinâmica de união e separação)

União: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa

Separação: Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare

União: Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma

Separação: Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare

Photo: Rūpa Mañjarī in her wonderful peacock feather garment uniting Śrī Śrī Rādhā Rādhā-Rasika (by Vṛndāvana Dāsa)

Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, 
Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare  
Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, 
Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare

हरे कृष्ण हरे कृष्ण कृष्ण कृष्ण हरे हरे  हरे राम हरे राम राम राम हरे हरे

Why does the Gauḍīyā Vaiṣṇava Sādhaka constantly chant Hare Kṛṣṇa?

Because a Mañjarī plays a fundamental role in the union and separation performance of the Divine Couple and her sole purpose is to unite Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

In the eternal daily pastimes, Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa separate for a few moments of the day, but this separation simply serves to increase the pleasure of re-union.

The Hare Kṛṣṇa Mahā-mantra is a Vipralambha-māyī Yugala Mantra (a Mantra of the Divine Couple permeated with the dynamics of union and separation)

Union: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa

Separation: Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare

Union: Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma

Separation: Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare

Japa é Kīrtanaṁ + Smaraṇam

"Você não deve ler enquanto canta Japa. Leia antes para plantar algumas sementes de Smaraṇam. Japa é Kīrtanaṁ + Smaraṇam."

Uttamaśloka Dāsa explicando a carta de Śrīla Prabhupāda para Śivānanda, Los Angeles, 4 de Dezembro de 1968

"You shouldn't read while chanting Japa. Read before to plant some Smaraṇam seeds. Japa is Kīrtanaṁ + Smaraṇam."

Uttamaśloka Dāsa explaining Śrīla Prabhupāda's letter to Śivānanda, Los Angeles, December 4, 1968

sábado, 31 de dezembro de 2016

2017

Para 2017, e com um prato de Burfis Mahā-Prasādam, eu desejo a todos os meus amigos devoto(a)s que tenham os seus corações repletos de Prema !!!

Jaya Śrī Rādhe !!!

For 2017, and with a dish of Burfis Mahā-Prasādam, I wish to all my devotee friends a Prema filled heart !!!

Jaya Śrī Rādhe !!!

JIVA - A Palavra Final !!!


JIVA - Um resumo do tema e pessoalmente para mim a palavra final:

Devemos considerar que o condicionamento material aos modos (gunas - cordas) da natureza material não tem um começo (anadi) mas tem um fim.

"No mundo espiritual, o Senhor Supremo tem formas espirituais ilimitadas, todas são expansões de Si mesmo iluminando este mundo. Com cada uma destas formas, o Senhor desfruta de passatempos com uma única alma liberada individual." (Priti Sandarbha -10)

Estas almas liberadas, portanto, têm corpos espirituais como o do Senhor.

Na morada do Senhor, há um número ilimitado de formas, todas adequadas para a prestação de serviço a Ele. Cada uma destas formas não são diferentes dEle, sendo expansões do Seu esplendor; cada uma é eterna, plena de consciência e bem-aventurança. Elas são a coroa, as jóias centrais do mundo espiritual, a própria vida do mundo espiritual. 

Estes corpos espirituais ilimitados são as formas perfeitas das almas liberadas que são concedidos a um indivíduo, de acordo com o seu gosto, quando ele atinge o estado de liberação absoluta. 

Este estado é chamado de realização do corpo espiritual (Svarupa-siddhi).

Todos estes corpos espirituais são eternos porque eles existem mesmo antes das almas liberadas entrarem neles e continuarão a existir depois. 

No entanto, antes da entrada da alma liberada, estes corpos espirituais estão na nossa perspectiva - em "estado estagnado".

Como todas as almas ilimitadas são servas do Senhor, cada uma delas tem um corpo espiritual na morada do Senhor adequado para prestar serviço ao Senhor. 

Quando um indivíduo torna-se qualificado para o serviço directo ao Senhor pela graça de Bhakti Devi, então o Senhor Supremo agracia-o com um corpo espiritual. A Baddha torna-se Baddha Mukta.

E assim, é a nossa consciência de serviço que "aviva" aquela forma.

A forma é como uma roupa muito bela que Krsna da à alma liberada. Uma roupa "feita de um nível superior de Bhava espiritual"

Agora somos forçados a perguntar:

1) Como podem haver corpos espirituais para nós antes de entrarmos neles?

2) Como eles podem estar lá e ficarem "estagnados" (não existe nada estagnado no mundo espiritual)?

3) Agora que estamos aqui, e eles estão lá ... o que eles estão a fazer neste meio tempo?

Mas temos que entender uma coisa: Estas perguntas são originárias de uma mente material condicionada. 

Somos forçados a pensar, sentir e experimentar em um tempo-espaço-continuum. Um eterno presente.

Estamos a falar sobre o mundo espiritual, a parte mais interna da criação de Sri Krsna. O reino mais alto do Amor Divino. Goloka Vrindavana. Nossas perguntas estão condenadas ao fracasso.

Nós só poderemos entender estes "assuntos", quando nossa consciência estiver totalmente purificada (Suddha-sattva).

Quando nossos corações estiverem cheios com a potência interna do Senhor (Svarupa-sakti), poderemos compreender e perceber estas coisas.

E pensar que estas formas espirituais já estão lá e ... "espera um pouco", o que elas estão a fazer "neste meio tempo?" ... a mente morde o seu próprio rabo !!! 

Não há "neste meio tempo". 

Lá, em Goloka Vrindavana, só há um eterno agora.

Então precisamos de metáforas como as formas "estão estagnadas", ou então nós "aviva-mo-las com nosso Bhava espiritual".

Estas formas não estão "estagnadas" nunca. Estão sempre a servir. Estão "estagnadas" na nossa perspectiva.

Krsna é Tri-kala-jna, conhece presente, passado e futuro. Ele, antes de nós mesmos, já sabe como iremos escolher servi-Lo.

Isto tudo é inconcebível. 

A verdadeira alquimia ocorre quando nos sentimos plenamente identificados com estas formas e fazemos o nosso serviço ao Casal Divino com o nosso Siddha-deha. 

Vislumbres de nosso Siddha-deha (cultivado em fases preliminares) podem ser experimentados na fase avançada de Asakti.

E portanto a alma (Baddha) não cai do mundo espiritual porque há uma forma espiritual destinada para ela lá, e esta forma está a actuar lá neste exacto momento. 

A alma nunca esteve numa relação prévia com Krsna e "caiu" desta relação lá. 

Onde a Jiva cai é neste mundo material, vida após vida por afastar-se de Krsna, Sua Lila e Sua morada. Uma vez no mundo espiritual não cai mais.

Só neste sentido é que podemos dizer que existe algo "inerente" ou em forma de semente.

JIVA - A summary of the topic and personally for me the final word:

We must consider that material conditioning to the modes of material nature (gunas - chords) has no beginning (anadi) but has an end.

"In the spiritual world, the Supreme Lord has unlimited spiritual forms, all are expansions of Himself illuminating that world. With each one of  those  forms,  the  Lord  enjoys  pastimes  with  a  single individual liberated soul." (Priti Sandarbha -10)

These liberated souls, therefore, have spiritual bodies like the Lord's.

In the Lord's abode, there are an unlimited number of forms, all suitable for the service to Him. Each one of these forms are not different from Him, being expansions of His splendor; each one is eternal, full of consciousness and bliss. They are the crown, the central jewels of the spiritual world, the very life of the spiritual world.

These unlimited spiritual bodies are the perfect forms of the liberated souls that are bestowed upon an individual, according to his taste, when he attains the state of absolute liberation.

This state is called realization of the spiritual body (Svarupa-siddhi).

All these spiritual bodies are eternal because they exist even before the liberated souls "enter" into them and will continue to exist afterwards.

However, before the entrance of the liberated soul, these spiritual bodies are in our perspective - in a "stagnant state."

As all unlimited souls are servants of the Lord, each of them has a spiritual body in the Lord's abode suitable to serve the Lord.

When an individual becomes qualified for direct service to the Lord by the grace of Bhakti Devi, then the Supreme Lord bestows him with a spiritual body. Baddha becomes Baddha Mukta.

And so, it is our consciousness of service that "enlivens" that form.

The form is like a very beautiful garment that Krsna gives to the liberated soul. A garment "made of a higher level of spiritual Bhava"

Now we are forced to ask:

1) How can there be spiritual bodies for us before we "enter" them?

2) How can they be there and become "stagnant" (there is nothing stagnant in the spiritual world)?

3) Now that we're here, and they're there ... what are they doing in the mean time?

But we have to understand one thing: These questions originate from a conditioned material mind.

We are forced to think, feel, and experience in a time-space-continuum. An eternal present.

We are talking about the spiritual world, the innermost part of Sri Krsna's creation. The highest realm of Divine Love. Goloka Vrindavana. Our questions are doomed to failure.

We can only understand these "subjects" when our consciousness is fully purified (Suddha-sattva).

When our hearts are filled with the inner potency of the Lord (Svarupa-sakti), we will be able to understand and perceive these things.

And to think that these spiritual forms are already there and ... "Wait a minute," what are they doing "in the meantime?" ... the mind bites its own tail !!!

There is no "in the meantime".

There, in Goloka Vrindavana, there is only an eternal now.

So we need metaphors like the "stagnant" forms, or we "enliven" them with our spiritual Bhava.

These forms are not "stagnant" ever. They are always serving. They are "stagnant" in our perspective.

Krsna is Tri-kala-jna, knows present, past and future. He, before us, already knows how we will choose to serve Him.

This is all inconceivable.

True alchemy occurs when we feel fully identified with these forms and do our service to the Divine Couple with our Siddha-deha.

Glimpses of our Siddha-deha (cultivated in preliminary stages) can be experienced in the advanced phase of Asakti.

And so, the soul (Baddha) does not fall from the spiritual world because there is a spiritual form destined for him there, and this form is acting there at this exact moment.

The soul has never been in a prior relationship with Krsna and has "fallen" from this relationship there.

Where the Jiva falls is in this material world, life after life by departing from Krsna, His Lila and His abode. Once in the spirit world it does not fall any more.

Only in this sense can we say that there is something "inherent" or in the form of a seed.

Thanks to flowingnectarstream

sexta-feira, 2 de dezembro de 2016

Śrī Śrī Rādhā Rasa Sudhānidhi

Foto: Samādhi de Śrīpāda Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī - Vṛndāvana

Śrī Śrī Rādhā Rasa Sudhānidhi - Śrīpāda Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī

Verso 4

Constantemente lembro-me da poeira dos pés de Śrī Rādhikā, cujo poder ilimitado subjuga instantaneamente até mesmo a Pessoa Suprema (Śrī Kṛṣṇa), o qual Ele mesmo não pode ser facilmente visto pelos maiores devotos como o Senhor Brahmā, o Senhor Śiva, Śukadeva Gosvāmī, Nārada Muni e Bhīṣma.

Photo: Śrīpāda Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī's Samādhi - Vṛndāvana

Śrī Śrī Rādhā Rasa Sudhānidhi - Śrīpāda Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī

Verse 4

I constantly remember the foot-dust of Śrī Rādhikā, whose unlimited power instantly subdues even the Supreme Person (Śrī Kṛṣṇa), Who Himself cannot be easily seen even by the greatest devotees like Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva, Śukadeva Gosvāmī, Nārada Muni and Bhīṣma.

quinta-feira, 1 de dezembro de 2016

Terra PLANA versus Terra ESFÉRICA 3

Photo: This is (4 heads) Brahmā's Universe. Our Universe !!!

If the golden Mounain (Meru) is the cause of night in a flat plane (according Surya Siddhanta), then why is it not visible when it intervenes between us and the Sun? 

I do not see Meru at night. Do you see?  I don't think that you see.

Since the Sumeru is 32000 Yojanas at the top, and Bharata Varsa is only 9000 Yojanas broad, when the Sumeru casts a shadow (according the theory of light) on Bharata Varsa, it should cover the entire Bharata Varsa into darkness. How is it possible?

Plus.

We still have to explain how there is simultaneous day and night on Bharata-varsa. The Srimad-bhagavatam does not explain that. In fact, it contradicts what we directly perceive. This remains an unexplained issue.

I think it is very well that we want to defend the cosmological model of the Bhagavatam. But for this to work out we have to explain these points:

1 - How there is simultaneous day and night on Bharata-varsa.

2 - In relation to the beings on Puskaradvipa, one rising and setting (24 hours of ‘their time’) is equivalent to 360 rising and settings on Bharata - this is one year on Bharata for one day on Puskara (SB 3.11.12). In relation to Lord Brahma’s abode atop Mount Meru, one rising and setting (or 24 hours) is experienced as 31,104,000 rising and settings on Bharata - this is 86,400 Bharata years for one day on Brahmaloka (SB. 10.14.43). 
Uttamasloka Dasa: "In Srimad-bhagavatam it is said the sun orbits Meru every 24 hours, but it doesn't specify which hours, ie: 24 hours of Bharata-varsa time or another 24 hour period." 

Well, there is only one Sun in this Universe and not many !!!

These 2 points above should be explained, otherwise how can we defend tooth and nail a model that we want to be possible in this physical world, a model that ....... we cannot satisfactorily explain !!!

"Uttamasloka Dasa: The two points you mentioned have already been identified long before as key issues to be properly explained in light of the Srimad-bhagavatam model, so this is nothing new. 

Having said that, just because we cannot explain these things adequately at this point in time, does not mean the Vedic model is defective. We don't have all the detailed knowledge we require for certain explanations so we are continuing our studies to determine the correct explanations.

The modern cosmology model has even more defects and deficiencies, and part of this process is to reveal those issues to show how the current scientific model is also invalid and filled with speculative ideas that have yet to be proved. This is all a work in progress."

Then according to the Puranic Cosmology, what causes night and day in Bharata Varsa?

"Uttamasloka Dasa: There are different explanations given by a number of devotees but a valid explanation must be in harmony with the overall Vedic model.

Since there is only one sun in the universe and it accounts for different relative time frames for the various realms, my thought is that the sun's visual appearance in each realm is also relative and localized in a similar way. However, I have not yet found evidence to support this and/or explain it in more detail."

Prahladesh Dasa: Interesting and subtly mystical.

Ok, this is about the second point. In relation to the first point I will now speculate. Can I? IMO, in another dimension, that of the Devas and the Bhagavatam, ALL Bharata Varsa stands for 12 hours night and 12 hours day.  
Because since Bharata Varsa is a flat island, it MUST receive, ALL of it, the light of the Sun.

But we know, and we all agree with it, is that here on our Earth (Bharata Varsa), where in one place is night in the other is day.

terça-feira, 29 de novembro de 2016

Terra PLANA versus Terra ESFÉRICA 2

1.5 

"The Sun said, I have become aware of your intention, I am satisfied with your penances and I shall impart the knowlwdge of the temporal heavenly bodies to you."

YES, knowlwdge of the temporal heavenly bodies and NOT ONLY a mechanical model or astronomical text for calculating the temporal position of the celestial bodies over the earth.

Why?

Because, Mayadanava then asks many questions about the Earth. And Surya responds all. Its circumference, shape (globular), movement, etc.

Note that there is often doubt when talking about round and circular that can be applied either in a globe or in a flat circle. But in the case of the Surya Siddhanta the spherical and globular form of the Earth is specified without margin of doubt and error.

The Surya Siddhanta is not a text only to explain the temporal position of the celestial bodies over the Earth. But also explain the Earth itself and apply the principle of correspondence projecting Meru, the higher systems of the Devas and inferiors systems of the Demons in this globular earth of our senses.

Thus the Surya Siddhanta describes Mount Meru as a small mountain at the North Pole, and the Siddhanta Siromani places the seven Dvipas in the Southern Hemisphere.
It is a treatise that harmonizes and PROJECTS (acording the principle of correspondence) the Cosmogeny of the universe, as given in all Puranas, in this globular earth of our senses.

Sriman Sadaputa Dasa explains brilliantly:

"We have argued that the spherical nature of this earth planet was known in Vedic times, and this, of course, is incompatible with a flat-earth interpretation of Vedic cosmology. However, even if we disregard this point, we can hardly suppose that a hypothetical pre-scientific sage living by the side of the Ganges would not have noticed that the sun moves high overhead in the course of a day. 

We therefore propose that the Puranas could not be identifying the plane of Bhu-mandala with the horizon.

At this point, the objection will be raised that when we look at the sky at night, we do not see anything unusual in the direction of either the zodiac or the celestial equator. Indeed, we see nothing but stars in all directions. 

If the surface of Bhu-mandala bisects the sky along one of these great circles, then we should see stars only on one side of the circle. On the other side we should see solid earth, as we do in the case of the horizon. Our answer to this objection is that since most of Bhu-mandala is not accessible to our senses, we cannot see it.

This may initially seem to be a rather unsatisfactory answer, but it is consistent with all of the material that we have gathered from the Bhagavatam thus far. For example, the height of Mount Meru is nearly equal to the diameter of the sun (according to modern data), so if it is indeed located "somewhere between the sun and the earth," then why can't we see it? 

Also, if the plane of Bhu-mandala exists at all, and acts as a barrier to our vision, then the sky must be bisected along some circle, with all visible stars lying on one side. Yet, if we go from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere, it is possible to look at the night sky in all directions, and wherever we look, we simply see stars. 

This is true, for example, if we look towards the south celestial pole from New Zealand or South Africa.
Another question that may be raised is, If you are saying that Bhu-mandala is higher-dimensional and therefore invisible, why do you try to assign it a location in three-dimensional space at all? The answer is that a higher-dimensional structure can also have a three-dimensional location. 

To illustrate this idea, consider a person who is trying to find a particular office in Manhattan. By moving north-south and east-west through the grid of streets, he may arrive at the address of the office but be disappointed to find that he cannot see it. To actually reach the office he may have to move fifty stories in the vertical direction by taking an elevator. 

Thus, the office has a two-dimensional location, but to reach it, three-dimensional travel is necessary. Likewise, to reach a given location in Bhu-mandala, both three-dimensional and higher-dimensional travel may be required.

In summary, we propose that the Vedic cosmology corresponds to our observable world in the following way: 

The earth of our experience is a small globe surrounded by the starry heavens in all directions. Bhu-mandala is a vast disc that extends for millions of miles into space but is not perceivable by our present senses. 

Its projection on the celestial sphere must be ascertained on the basis of the movement of the sun, and this projection does not correspond to the variable horizon of this earth. We suggest that this is not simply an artificial reconciliation of Vedic cosmology with modern astronomical views. Rather, we propose that this is how Vedic cosmology was understood in ancient times.

The Principle of Correspondence

In a number of places, Shrila Prabhupada cites traditions identifying features of the earth with features of Bhu-mandala and the higher planets in general. Some examples are:

(1) "Bhauma-svarga [which corresponds to the eight varshas of Jambüdvipa other than Bharata-varsha] is sometimes accepted as the tract of land in Bharata-varsha known as Kashmir" (SB 5.17.11p).

(2) It is said that Shivaloka is "supposed to be situated near the Himalaya Mountains" (SB 4.24.22p).

(3) The Yakshas (who are associated with the demigod Kuvera) are identified as Himalayan hill tribes like the Tibetans (SB 4.10.5p). 

(4) The words a-manasa-acalat, meaning "up to Manasa Mountain," are translated as referring to the Arctic region (SB 4.16.14).

(5) "Sapta-dvipa refers to the seven great islands or continents on the surface of the globe: (1) Asia, (2) Europe, (3) Africa, (4) North America, (5) South America, (6) Australia, and (7) Oceania" (SB 4.21.12p). Similar statements are made in SB 3.21.2p and TLC, p. 80.

We suggest that identifications of this kind either refer directly to higher-dimensional associations between earthly and celestial locations, or else they refer to traditions that have arisen because of ancient experience of the earth as a higher realm. Thus, Lord Shiva is always associated with the Himalayas, and in the Vedic literature there are many stories about him that take place in a Himalayan setting. 

It is therefore natural to think of the Himalayas as the place of Lord Shiva, and he may indeed be especially accessible there to advanced yogis. Of course, we cannot simply regard Shivaloka or Sapta-dvipa as places in the three-dimensional earthly realm of our ordinary experience.

The astronomical siddhantas also contain passages identifying features of Bhu-mandala with parts of the earth globe. Thus the Surya-siddhanta describes Mount Meru as a small mountain at the North Pole, and the Siddhanta-siromani places the seven dvipas in the Southern Hemisphere. In his purports to CC AL 5.111 and CC ML 20.218, Shrila Prabhupada cites the Siddhanta-siromani's description of the seven dvipas. 

Since Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura also cites this description in his Anubhashya commentary on these verses of Chaitanya-caritamrita, we will reproduce it here:

"Most learned astronomers have stated that Jambudvipa embraces the whole northern hemisphere lying to the north of the salt sea; and that the other six dvipas and the seven seas ... are all situated in the southern hemisphere.
To the south of the equator lies the salt sea, and to the south of it the sea of milk,... where the omnipresent Vasudeva, to whose lotus feet Brahma and all the gods bow in reverence, holds his favorite residence.
Beyond the sea of milk lie in succession the seas of curds, clarified butter, sugar cane juice, and wine; and, last of all, that of sweet water, which surrounds Vadavanala. The Patala lokas, or infernal regions, form the concave strata of the earth [SSB1, p. 116]."

We should note that these verses of Siddhanta-siromani describe a correspondence between the earth globe and Bhu-mandala that can be expressed in mathematical form. The points on the plane of Bhu-mandala can be mapped onto the earth globe by a stereographic projection. 
This is a standard kind of map projection, in which countries on the curved surface of the earth are represented on a flat plane.

In this particular case, one can use a modified polar stereographic projection, which sends the North Pole of the earth to the center point on the plane and sends circles of latitude on the earth to ever-widening concentric circles on the plane. It is possible to set up such a projection so that

(1) The path of the sun in Pushkaradvipa maps to the tropic of Capricorn (see Section 3.d).

(2) The six dvipas surrounding Jambudvipa map to bands along parallels of latitude in the Southern Hemisphere.

(3) The equator cuts the salt ocean between Jambüdvipa and Plakshadvipa in half. Thus Jambüdvipa lies in the Northern Hemisphere.

(4) The base of Mount Meru maps to the Arctic Circle. Thus Mount Meru corresponds to the "land of the midnight sun," north of the Arctic Circle.

This correspondence agrees with the description of the dvipas in the Siddhanta-siromani, and it agrees with the account given in the Surya-siddhanta of the life of the demigods on Mount Meru. There it is stated that the demigods experience days and nights of six months each, and that their dawn and evening occur at the times of the vernal and autumnal equinoxes (SS, p. 81). This, of course, is the situation at the North Pole.

The question is, What is the meaning of this mapping between Bhu-mandala and the earth globe? It is not possible for us to take it as a literal description of the earth, since the continents in the Southern Hemisphere are not at all arranged in concentric rings. It may be that this mapping refers to actual higher-dimensional connections between parts of this earth and parts of Bhu-mandala. This is suggested by the fact that Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati refers to it, and Shrila Prabhupada, following in disciplic succession, does also.

However, since the authors of the astronomical siddhantas often expressed doubts about Puranic cosmology, it seems likely that for them, at least, the mapping was simply an artificial attempt to force this cosmology into a three-dimensional framework and thereby make sense out of it. 

We therefore suggest that although historical Indian astronomers such as Bhaskaracarya were carrying on a genuine Vedic tradition of astronomy, their understanding of Vedic cosmology was nonetheless imperfect. They did not understand the higher-dimensional nature of structures such as Bhu-mandala, and they consequently focused their attention on those features of Vedic astronomy that can be readily understood in three-dimensional terms.

In recent centuries, many Vaisnavas have also experienced perplexity in their efforts to understand the relationship between Bhu-mandala and the earth globe of our direct experience. This is shown in Appendix 1, where we reproduce a discussion of this relationship by the Vaisnava commentator Vamshidhara. If the existing Vedic literature consists of materials dating to an era in which people had direct experience of higher-dimensional reality, then it is not surprising that many statements in it are bewildering from our gross sensory perspective. 

It is therefore reasonable to follow the example of the acaryas and simply receive these statements with faith. If this is done, then further insight may come in due course of time. (In contrast, the approach of skeptical rejection is not likely to lead to further study and insight.)

We will end this subsection by noting another correspondence principle involving Vedic cosmology-the principle of correspondence between microcosm (the body) and macrocosm (the universe and the universal form). In SB 5.23cs there is the statement that "yogis worship the Shishumara planetary system, which is technically known as the kundalini-cakra." 

It appears that yogis in meditation would identify the central axis of the universe (which we will discuss in Chapter 4) with the series of cakras in the spinal column. By moving their life airs up the series of cakras, they would prepare their subtle bodies to travel up the axis of the universe to Brahmaloka. This basic idea appears in mystical traditions throughout the world, but it would take us too far afield to discuss it further here."

segunda-feira, 28 de novembro de 2016

Terra PLANA versus Terra ESFÉRICA (ver também 2 e 3)

Terra PLANA versus Terra ESFÉRICA

Foto: Gola Yantra (esfera armilar) usada pelos astrónomos indianos de Siddhānta clássico.

Por incrivel que pareça, existe um grande debate acerca deste tema. Inclusive entre os devot@s.

Alguém pode afirmar que Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura era um astrónomo que abandonou a astronomia indiana de Siddhānta clássico ou o Sūrya Siddhānta e aceitou a cosmologia Puranica do Śrīmad Bhāgavatam. 

No entanto ele elaborou o calendário (Pañjikā) que usamos baseado nos cálculos do Sūrya Siddhānta. Então não parece que ele tenha abandonado o Sūrya Siddhānta e a astronomia indiana de Siddhānta clássico.

O Sūrya Siddhānta é falado pelo próprio Semideus Sūrya que explica a ciência astronómica.

Muito antes de Newton e Einstein, os astrónomos da Índia como especificado na astronomia indiana de Siddhānta clássico tinham uma visão cosmológica diferente da visão cosmológica Puranica. 

Então se vamos negar Newton e Einstein, teremos que negar tambem os astrónomos da Índia e o Sūrya Siddhānta, pois ambos estão, na sua maior parte, em consonância nos seus cálculos. 

E então isto nos leva a que existam duas visões cosmológicas na Índia. 

Dos Purāṇas (Bhāgavatam) e do Sūrya Siddhānta. 

Ambas literais, porém, uma (do Sūrya Siddhānta) perceptível para nós e outra (do Bhāgavatam, dos Devas) imperceptível numa dimensão subtil. 

Os Ācāryas ao comentarem o 5º canto não mencionam nada do Sūrya Siddhānta e nem poderiam mencionar porque não é o local para tal. Eles estão simplesmente focados na descrição cosmológica (para nós) imperceptível dos Devas.
Gravidade

Muito antes de Newton, na Índia, a gravidade já era conhecida. O Sūrya Siddhānta explica que objectos caem sobre a Terra devido a uma força de atracção pela Terra. De acordo com o Siddhānta, a propriedade de atracção é inerente à Terra.

Plana versus Esférica

3.2

Este globo da Terra formado pelos cinco principios elementares terra, ar, água, éter e fogo é perfeitamente redonda e circundada pelas órbitas da Lua, Mercúrio, Vênus, Sol, Marte, Júpiter e Saturno e pelas constelações. Ela não tem nenhum suporte material: mas permanece firmemente na expansão do céu por sua própria força inerente. Em toda a sua superfície subsistem (em segurança) todos os objectos animados e inanimados, e todos os seres vivos (humanos, animais, deuses e demônios).

3.3

Está coberta em todos os lados com uma grande quantidade de montanhas, bosques, cidades e edifícios sagrados, assim como o bulbo da flor globular de Nauclea (Kadamba) com sua multidão de anteras.
3.11 

Refutação da suposição de que a Terra é plana
Se esta Terra abençoada fosse nivelada, como um espelho plano, então por que não está o Sol, que gira acima de uma distância da Terra, visível tanto para os homens quanto para os Deuses? (Na hipótese Puranica, que o Sol está sempre a girar sobre Meru, acima e horizontalmente à Terra).

3.12

Se a Montanha dourada (Meru) é a causa da noite, então por que não é visível quando intervém entre nós e o Sol? E Meru sendo admitido (Puranicamente) estar para o Norte, como acontece que o Sol nasça (durante metade do ano) para o Sul?

3.13 

Razão da falsa aparência da forma plana da Terra
Como a centésima parte da circunferência de um círculo é (dificilmente diferente de) um plano, e como a Terra é um corpo excessivamente grande, e uma pessoa é extremamente pequena (em comparação), toda a porção visível da Terra, conseqüentemente, parece para uma pessoa em sua superfície ser um plano perfeito.

3.19

Em qualquer parte do Globo que uma pessoa esteja, pensa que a Terra está debaixo de seus pés, e que ela está de pé sobre a Terra, mas dois indivíduos colocados a 90° um do outro, de forma interessante captam que o outro está em pé em uma linha horizontal, como se fosse em ângulo reto para si mesmo.

3.20

Aqueles que são colocados à distância da metade da circunferência da Terra um do outro são mutuamente antípodas, como um homem na margem de um rio e sua sombra refletida na água; mas também aqueles que estão situados à distância de 90°, como aqueles que estão situados a 180° de você, mantém sua posição sem dificuldade. Eles se mantém com a mesma facilidade que nós nos mantemos na nossa posição.

Eclipses

O Sūrya Siddhānta apresenta uma explicação de eclipses que concorda com a explicação moderna, mas também traz Rāhu para a equação.

12.53

Em toda parte na superfície do globo terrestre as pessoas supõem seu próprio lugar como sendo mais alto do que o dos outros; porque este globo está no espaço (éter) onde não há acima ou abaixo.

12.54

Todas as pessoas ao redor de seu próprio lugar contemplam a Terra embora globular, como sendo um plano circular, por conta da pequenez de seus corpos.

Circunferência da Terra

A circunferência da Terra é 4967 Yojanas.

Movimentos

Como gira a esfera estrelada com os planetas, e qual é o seu apoio?

12.55

Esta esfera estrelada gira da direita para a esquerda no hemisfério norte e da esquerda para a direita no hemisfério sul. Mas no equador ela sempre gira de leste a oeste.

Gola Yantra

O Goladīpikā - um tratado detalhado que trata dos globos e da esfera armilar foi composto na Índia. A esfera armilar indiana (Gola Yantra) foi baseada em coordenadas equatoriais e tinha um aro elíptico.

Se alguém argumenta que o modelo usado para executar esta função é um globo mecânico de madeira com uma vara e não é a própria Terra, diríamos que não é verdade. Se assim fosse, então eles fariam um plano mecânico de madeira.

Se alguém argumenta que o Sūrya Siddhānta é apenas um texto para calcular as posições temporais dos corpos celestes acima da Terra e nada mais, diríamos que não é verdade, porque o Sūrya Siddhānta explica muito mais. A Terra como um globo e dá muito mais detalhes como gravidade, eclipses, etc.

Se alguém argumenta que os pólos deste modelo do Gola Yantra são apenas imaginados como os reinos dos Devas e Semideuses, isto é assim porque eles são reinos que só podem ser alcançados por Yogīs místicos em outra dimensão, que é o que o Śrīmad Bhāgavatam descreve. A visão dos Devas, Yogīs místicos e devotos avançados. Somos nós que temos que nos qualificar para ver :D Está tudo lá.

Neste link, vamos encontrar uma explicação detalhada de todos os instrumentos utilizados na Astronomia Indiana de Siddhānta Clássico.

Na página 270 encontraremos a reconstrução de uma esfera armilar (Gola Yantra).

FLAT Earth versus GLOBE Earth

Photo: Gola Yantra (armillary sphere) used by Indian Classical Siddhānta Astronomers.

One may assert that Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura was an astronomer who abandoned Indian Classical Siddhānta Astronomy or Sūrya Siddhānta and accepted the Puranic cosmology of the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam.

However he drew up the calendar (Pañjikā) we use based on the calculations of Sūrya Siddhānta. So it does not appear that he has abandoned Sūrya Siddhānta and Indian Classical Siddhānta Astronomy.

The Sūrya Siddhānta is spoken by Demigod Sūrya himself who explains the astronomical science.

Long before Newton and Einstein, astronomers of India, as specified in Indian Classical  Siddhānta Astronomy had a different cosmological view of the Puranic cosmological view.

So if we are going to deny Newton and Einstein, we will have to deny also the astronomers of India and the Sūrya Siddhānta, for both are mostly in consonance in their calculations.

And then this leads us to have two cosmological visions in India.

Of the Purāṇas (Bhāgavatam) and the Sūrya Siddhānta.

Both literals, however, one (of the Sūrya Siddhānta) perceptible to us and another (of the Bhāgavatam, of the Devas) imperceptible in a subtle dimension.

The Ācāryas in commenting on the 5th Canto do not mention anything about Sūrya Siddhānta and could not even mention it because it is not the place for that. They are simply focused on the (for us) imperceptible cosmological description of the Devas.

Gravity

Long before Newton, in India, gravity was already known. Sūrya Siddhānta explains that objects fall on the Earth due to a force of attraction by the Earth. According to the Siddhānta, the property of attraction is inherent in the Earth.

Flat versus globe

3.2 

This globe of the Earth formed of (the five elementary priciples) earth, air, water, ether and fire is perfectly round and encompassed by the orbits of the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn and by the constellations. It has no material supporter: but stands firmly in the expanse of heaven by its own inherent force. On its surface through-out subsist (in security) all animate and inanimate objects, and all living beings (humans, animals, gods and demons).

3.3 

It is covered in all sides with multitudes of mountains, groves, towns, and sacred edifices, as is the bulbe of Nauclea's (Kadamba) globular flower with its multitude of anthers.

3.11 

Refutation of the supposition that Earth is level
If this blessed Earth were level, like a plane mirror, then why is not the sun, revolving above at a distance from the Earth, visible to men as well as to the Gods? (on the Puranic hypothesis, that it is always revolving about Meru, above and horizontally to the Earth).

3.12 

If the golden Mounain (Meru) is the cause of night, then why is it not visible when it intervenes between us and the Sun? And Meru been admitted  (by Puranics) to lie to the North, how come it to pass that the Sun rises (for half the year) to the South?

3.13 

Reason of the false appeareance of the plane form of the Earth

As the one-hundredth part of the circumference of a circle is (scarcely different from) a plane, and as the Earth is excessively large body, and a man exceedingly small (in comparison), the whole visible portion of the Earth consequentely appears to a man on its surface to be perfect plane. 

3.19

A man on whatever part of the Globe he may be, thinks the Earth to be under his feet, and that he is standing up right upon it, but two individuals placed at 90° from each other, fancy catch that the other is standing in a horizontal line, as it were at right angle to himself.

3.20

Those who are placed at the distance of half the Earth's circumference from each other are mutually antipodes, as a man on the bank of a river and his shadow reflected in the water; but as well those who are situated at the distance of 90° as those who are situated at that of 180° from you, maintain their position without difficulty. They stand with the same ease as we do here in our position.

Eclipses

Sūrya Siddhānta presents an explanation of eclipses that agrees with the modern explanation but also brings Rāhu into the picture.

12.53 

Everywhere on the surface of the terrestrial globe people suppose their own place higher than that of others; because this globe is in space (ether) where there is no above or below.

12.54 

All people around their own place behold the Earth though globular, of the form of a circular plain, on account of the smallness of their bodies.

Earth's circumference

Earth's circumference is 4967 Yojanas. 

Movements

How does the starry sphere with the planets revolve, and what is its support?

12.55 

This starry sphere revolves from right to left in northern hemisphere and left to right in southern hemisphere. But at the equator it always revolves from east to west.

Gola Yantra

The Goladīpikā - a detailed treatise dealing with globes and the armillary sphere was composed in India. The Indian armillary sphere (Gola Yantra) was based on equatorial coordinates and had an elliptical hoop.

If someone argues that the model used to perform that function is a mechanical wooden globe with a stick through and it is not the Earth itself, we'd say that's not true. If so, then they would make a mechanical wooden flat model.

If someone argues that the Sūrya Siddhānta is only a text for calculating the temporal positions of the celestial bodies above the Earth and nothing more we'd say that's not true, because the Sūrya Siddhānta explains much more. The Earth as a globe and gives much more details like gravity, eclipses, etc.

If someone argues that the poles on this model of the Gola Yantra are only imagined to be the realms of the Devas and Demigods, this is so because they are realms that can only be reached by mystic Yogīs in another dimension, which is what Śrīmad Bhāgavatam describes. The vision of the Devas, mystic Yogīs and advanced devotees. We're the ones who have to qualify to see :D It's all there. 

In this link we will find a detailed explanation of all the instruments used in Indian Classical Siddhānta Astronomy. 

In page 270 we will find the reconstruction of an armillary sphere (Gola Yantra).