Photo: This is (4 heads) Brahmā's Universe. Our Universe !!!
If the golden Mounain (Meru) is the cause of night in a flat plane (according Surya Siddhanta), then why is it not visible when it intervenes between us and the Sun?
I do not see Meru at night. Do you see? I don't think that you see.
Since the Sumeru is 32000 Yojanas at the top, and Bharata Varsa is only 9000 Yojanas broad, when the Sumeru casts a shadow (according the theory of light) on Bharata Varsa, it should cover the entire Bharata Varsa into darkness. How is it possible?
We still have to explain how there is simultaneous day and night on Bharata-varsa. The Srimad-bhagavatam does not explain that. In fact, it contradicts what we directly perceive. This remains an unexplained issue.
I think it is very well that we want to defend the cosmological model of the Bhagavatam. But for this to work out we have to explain these points:
1 - How there is simultaneous day and night on Bharata-varsa.
2 - In relation to the beings on Puskaradvipa, one rising and setting (24 hours of ‘their time’) is equivalent to 360 rising and settings on Bharata - this is one year on Bharata for one day on Puskara (SB 3.11.12). In relation to Lord Brahma’s abode atop Mount Meru, one rising and setting (or 24 hours) is experienced as 31,104,000 rising and settings on Bharata - this is 86,400 Bharata years for one day on Brahmaloka (SB. 10.14.43).
Uttamasloka Dasa: "In Srimad-bhagavatam it is said the sun orbits Meru every 24 hours, but it doesn't specify which hours, ie: 24 hours of Bharata-varsa time or another 24 hour period."
Well, there is only one Sun in this Universe and not many !!!
These 2 points above should be explained, otherwise how can we defend tooth and nail a model that we want to be possible in this physical world, a model that ....... we cannot satisfactorily explain !!!
"Uttamasloka Dasa: The two points you mentioned have already been identified long before as key issues to be properly explained in light of the Srimad-bhagavatam model, so this is nothing new.
Having said that, just because we cannot explain these things adequately at this point in time, does not mean the Vedic model is defective. We don't have all the detailed knowledge we require for certain explanations so we are continuing our studies to determine the correct explanations.
The modern cosmology model has even more defects and deficiencies, and part of this process is to reveal those issues to show how the current scientific model is also invalid and filled with speculative ideas that have yet to be proved. This is all a work in progress."
Then according to the Puranic Cosmology, what causes night and day in Bharata Varsa?
"Uttamasloka Dasa: There are different explanations given by a number of devotees but a valid explanation must be in harmony with the overall Vedic model.
Since there is only one sun in the universe and it accounts for different relative time frames for the various realms, my thought is that the sun's visual appearance in each realm is also relative and localized in a similar way. However, I have not yet found evidence to support this and/or explain it in more detail."
Prahladesh Dasa: Interesting and subtly mystical.
Ok, this is about the second point. In relation to the first point I will now speculate. Can I? IMO, in another dimension, that of the Devas and the Bhagavatam, ALL Bharata Varsa stands for 12 hours night and 12 hours day.
Because since Bharata Varsa is a flat island, it MUST receive, ALL of it, the light of the Sun.
But we know, and we all agree with it, is that here on our Earth (Bharata Varsa), where in one place is night in the other is day.